To talk about the diamond circuit we have to make some reference to the history of Angola. The story goes that diamonds have already been used to buy weapons and promote wars. There were rebels in Angola, in the Democratic Congo, in Liberia, in Sierra Leone, who were extracting alluvial diamonds, selling them, and using this money to buy weapons and to fight against the governments. To avoid this, there was the so-called battle of Cuito Cuanavale, in the region of Cuando Cubango, in which the Apartheid army, which planned to occupy Angola, was defeated. His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Angola presented three conditions to the Apartheid forces: the first condition involved signing an agreement that determined that the Apartheid forces would no longer invade Angola; the second was that Apartheid should be banned and that his Excellency, President Nelson Mandela should be freed; and the final condition was that Namibia, which served as a springboard for the forces of Apartheid to attack Angola, should become an independent state. Then, with these three conditions inside Angola, it was expected that UNITA would sign this peace accord. But this didn't happen. The forces of UNITA lost the support of Apartheid, they no longer had Namibia as a springboard country, and they started to mine for diamonds in the country, obtaining more money than they had had up to the point. So, there was no peace agreement, and the problem was twice what it had been before. How could it be resolved? His Excellency the President of the Republic of Angola decided, through foreign affairs, to convince the world, to which they sold diamonds, that diamonds would continue to come out of the country, but accompanied by a certificate of origin. In this way, no rebel would forge one, and any diamonds reaching Belgium or Tel Aviv without the certificate would be seized as they would have been brought their by rebels. This phenomenon, of the rebels, was also taking place in the Democratic Congo, in Liberia and in Sierra Leone. It was a problem of the United Nations. And so the United Nations sent Ambassador Robert Fowler, a Canadian, to Angola, with the proposal of banning countries that had the problem of blood diamonds. Diamonds leaving Angola were certified. Robert Fowler reported this idea to the United Nations and, in this way, transformed this certificate into an international document, removing blood diamonds from the entire planet. At this moment, the wars came to an end, but now the process only exists to prevent the appearance of others.
Alluvial diamonds: are diamonds that break away from their origin, as normally diamonds are found in magma coming up from below the earth's crust, millions of years ago, which has solidified in kimberlite pipes. Over thousands of years of erosion, rivers winding along their circuitous paths pass over these kimberlites, taking diamonds with them, and depositing them as alluvial diamonds throughout Angola and all the way to the sea. Both Diamang and Endiama, for a hundred years, only mined alluvial deposits. It was with scientific knowhow that Ediama and Alrosa, in 2011 and 2012, went in search of the origin of these alluvial diamonds. And it is interesting to note that when you measure the beta ray of diamonds from the same kimberlite, this ray never changes.
Kimberlite Diamond: When you take a kimberlite, for example from the Sanga mine, and measure its beta ray, this beta ray is different to that of the Catoca mine, or in other words, every kimberlite has its own DNA. If you take diamonds found throughout Angola, in Malange, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Moxico, Cunene, Bié, and study their DNA, you can see from which kimberlite this diamond came from. For example, if the diamond has the same beta ray, from the left side, the same as that of Catoca, it means that this diamond came from Catoca. Following such measurement, we come to the conclusion that only 10% of alluvial diamonds come from known zones. Ediama and Alrosa started a study, close to Catoca, searching above and below, and to the sides, and travelled 25 kilometres from Catoca, before finding Luaxe. But now, the number of known kimberlites has grown. Maybe the conclusion will be reached that 80% of alluvial diamonds have come from Luaxe, seeing as it is crossed by a river.